Profit and loss

Cost Price– the price at which an article is purchased is called its cost price(CP)Selling Price– the price at which an article is sold is called its selling price (SP)Profit or Gain– if SP is greater than CP, the seller is said to have a profit. Loss- if SP is less than CP the seller … Read more

Time and Distance

If the ratio of the speed of A & B is a:b then the ratio of time taken by them to cover the same distance is “The time taken for covering a certain distance is increasingly proportional to the speed.” Similarly time taken to finish a work is the inversed proportional to the number of … Read more

Ratio and Proportion

Ratio – the ratio of two quantity a & b in the same unit is the fraction and we write it a:b In a ratio a:b we call a as the first term or antecedent and b the second term or consequent. Rule– the multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the … Read more

Logarithms: Definition Properties

A logarithm is a mathematical tool denoting the exponent a base requires to yield a specific number. Noted as “log_b(x),” where “b” is the base and “x” the value, logarithms simplify calculations by transforming multiplication and exponentiation into addition, playing a pivotal role in various fields for their efficiency in handling complex relationships. It is … Read more

How to find Square root and Cube root

Square root If you have to find square of a number then we write $x^2=y$ it means we multiplied x two times and got y. For example find the square of 2 that you have to multiple 2 two times $2^2=2*2=4$ We find square of a number by multiplying that number twice. So what is … Read more


Partnership When two or more than two persons are a business jointly they are called partners & the deal is known as partnership. Ratio of division of gain. When investments of all the partner are for the same time the gain or loss is distributed among the partners in the ratio of their investment A’s … Read more


1) Factors & Multiples– if a number A divides another number B, exactly we say that A is a factor of B. In this case B is called a multiple of A. 2) Highest common factor or a greatest common measure (CGM) or greatest common divisor. The H.C.F of two or more than two numbers … Read more

Simple and compound interest

Simple interest P= principal amount R = rate/unit T = time/year month day etc. Compound interest P= principal amount R= rate/unit T= time unit Where rate are difference for different unit or time. Than Present worth of Rs x lac in year hence is given by present worth=


To express as a fraction = Thus, = = = = = To express as a percentage, we have = Thus = = = 25% if the price of commodity increases by R% than the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is Do – decreases R% ______ do__ Result on Population– … Read more