To express as a fraction =

Thus, = =

= = =

To express as a percentage, we have =

Thus = = = 25%

if the price of commodity increases by R% than the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is

Do – decreases R% ______ do__

**Result on Population**– let the population of a town be P now & suppose increases at the rate of (@) R % annum then.

Population after n year =

Population n year ago =

Result on depreciation (decrease-) Let the present value of a machine BCp suppose it depreciate @ R% per annum then.

Value of machine after n year =

Value of machine n year ago =

if A is R% more than B, B is less than A by

If A is R% less than B, then B is more than A by