Staffing Class 12 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 6 

1 Meaning of Staffing

Staffing potential inserting human beings to jobs.

It starts off evolved with human useful resource planning and consists of exceptional different features like recruitment, selection, training, development, merchandising and overall performance appraisal of work force.

2 Need and Importance of Staffing

A. Obtaining Competent Personnel: Proper staffing helps in discovering and acquiring ready personnel for a range of jobs.

B. High Performance: Proper staffing ensures higher overall performance via placing proper individual on the proper job.

C. Continuous growth: Proper staffing ensures non-stop survival and boom of the enterprise.

D. Optimum utilization of human resources: It prevents under-utilization of personnel and excessive labour cost.

E. Improves job satisfaction: It improves job pride and morale of employee.

3 Staffing as a Part of Human Resource Management (HRM)

A. Staffing

• Function which all managers have to function as all managers immediately deal with people

• Staffing refers to this sort of function performed by using all managers in small organizations.

• As groups develop and range of human beings employed increases, a separate branch known as the human useful resource branch is shaped which consists of professionals who are specialists in dealing with people.

• In truth early definitions of staffing targeted narrowly on solely hiring human beings for vacant positions. But these days staffing is a phase of HRM which encompasses now not only staffing however additionally a wide variety of different specialized offerings such as job evaluation, administration of labour relations.

B. Human Resource Management

• Involves procuring, developing, preserving and appraising a in a position and cozy team of workers to acquire the dreams of the organisation successfully and effectively.

• Its reason is to allow each human being working in the enterprise to make his pleasant possible contribution.

4 Process of staffing


A. Estimating Manpower Requirement: It includes the following:

(a) Making stock of modern human sources in phrases of qualification, education & skills.

(b) Assessing future human useful resource wants of all departments.

(c) Developing a programmed to supply the human resources. Job Analysis is an intensive way of discovering important points associated to all jobs.

B. Recruitment: It refers to identification of the sources of manpower availability and making efforts to impenetrable candidates for the quite a number job positions in an organization.

C. Selection: It is the method of selecting and appointing the proper candidates for a number of jobs in abusiness enterprise thru a number of exams, exams & interviews.

D. Placement and Orientation: When a new worker reviews for duty, he is to be positioned on the job for which he is quality suited.

Placement is very vital technique as it can make sure “Right individual for proper job”.

Orientation/Induction is worried with the procedure of introducing a new worker to the organization.

The new personnel are familiarized with their units, supervisors and fellow employees.

They are additionally to be knowledgeable about working hours, method for availing leave, scientific facilities, records and geography of company and rules/regulations pertaining to their wages etc.

E. Training and Development: Systematic education helps in growing the capabilities and information of personnel in doing their jobs thru a number method.

Development entails boom of a worker in all respects. It is the procedure by means of which the personnel gather competencies and competence to do their existing jobs and enlarge their abilities for greater jobs in future.

F. Performance Appraisal: It is involved with ranking or evaluating the overall performance of employees. Transfers and promotions of the group of workers are primarily based on overall performance appraisal.

5 Recruitment

A) Recruitment: Recruitment may additionally be described as the procedure of looking out for potential personnel and stimulating them to observe for jobs in the organization.

Sources of Recruitment


(A) Internal Sources

(B) External Sources

(A) Internal Sources of Recruitment

Internal sources refer to inviting candidates from inside the organization. Following are essential sources of inside recruitment:

a. Transfers: It includes the transferring of a worker from one job to another, from one branch to some other or from one shift to any other shift.

b. Promotions: It refers to moving a worker to a greater role carrying greater responsibilities, prestige, services and pay.

c. Lay-Off: To recall the brief employee for work is known as Lay-Off, who had been briefly separated from organisation due to lack of work.

Advantages of Internal Sources Recruitment:

(1) Employees are encouraged to enhance their performance.

(2) Internal recruitment additionally simplifies the procedure of resolution & placement.

(3) No wastage of time on the worker education and development.

(4) Filling of jobs internally is cheaper.

Limitation of Internal Sources

(1) The scope for induction of clean intelligence is reduced.

(2) The worker may additionally come to be lethargic.

(3) The spirit of opposition amongst the personnel may also be hampered.

(4) Frequent transfers of personnel might also regularly minimize the productiveness of the organization.

(B) External Sources of Recruitment

When the candidates from outdoor the business enterprise are invited to fill the vacant job function then it is regarded as exterior recruitment. The frequent strategies of exterior sources of recruitments are:

a. Direct Recruitment: Under the direct recruitment, a observe is positioned on the observe board of the business enterprise specifying the important points of the jobs available.

b. Casual callers: Many reputed enterprise corporations preserve an information base of unsolicited candidates in their office. This listing can be used for Recruitment.

c. Advertisement: Advertisement in media is typically used when a wider preference is required. Example– Newspapers, Internet, Radio, Television etc.

d. Employment Exchange: Employment change is considered as a true supply of recruitment for unskilled and professional operative jobs.

e. Campus recruitment and labour contractors can be used for the purpose.

Merits of External Sources

1. Qualified Personnel: By the use of exterior supply of recruitment the administration can appeal to certified and skilled humans to observe for the vacant jobs in the organization.

2. Wider Choice: The administration has a wider preference in choosing the human beings for employment.

3. Fresh Talent: It offers wider desire and brings new blood in the organization.

4. Competitive Spirit: If an organization faucets exterior sources, the team of workers will have to compete with the outsiders.

Limitations of External Sources of Recruitment

1.Dissatisfaction amongst current employees: Recruitment from outdoor may also motive dissatisfaction amongst the employees. They may additionally sense that their probabilities of advertising are reduced.

2. Costly process: A lot of cash has to be spent on commercial consequently this is pricey process.

3. Lengthy Process: It takes greater time than inside sources of recruitment.

6 Selection

Selection is the system of deciding on from amongst the candidates from inside the employer or from outside, the most appropriate man or woman for the contemporary function or for the future position.

7 Process of Selection

The successive levels in resolution method are:


A. Preliminary Screening: After functions have been received, they are right checked as related to qualification etc. by way of screening committee. A listing of candidates to be known as for employment assessments made and unsuitable candidates are rejected altogether.

B. Selection Tests: These assessments include:

(a) Psychological assessments which are based totally on assumption that human behaviour at work can be expected through giving a number exams like aptitude, persona take a look at etc.

(b) Employment check for judging the applicant’s suitability for the job.

C. Employment Interviews: The essential motive of interview is:

(a) to locate out suitability of the candidates.

(b) to are seeking greater facts about the candidate.

(c) to supply the candidate a correct image of job with small print of phrases and conditions.

D. Reference Checks: Prior to remaining selection, the potential business enterprise makes an investigation of the references provided via the applicant.

He undertakes a thorough search into candidate’s household background, previous employment, education, police documents etc.

E. Selection Decisions: A listing of candidate who clear the employment tests, interviews and reference assessments is organized and then the chosen candidates are listed in order of merit.

F. Medical/Physical Examination: A certified clinical specialist appointed by using agency must certify whether or not the candidate is bodily healthy to the necessities of a precise job.

A ideal bodily examination will make sure greater general of fitness & bodily health of personnel thereby decreasing absenteeism.

G. Job Offer: After a candidate has cleared all hurdles in the resolution procedure, he is formally appointed through issuing him an Appointment Letter.

The vast phrases and conditions, pay scale are essential phase of Appointment Letter.

H. Contract of Employment: After getting the job offer, the candidate has to supply his acceptance.

After acceptance, each enterprise and worker will signal a contract of employment which incorporates phrases & conditions, pay scale, go away rules, hours of work, mode of termination of employment etc.

Nishant desires to set a unit in rural vicinity the place human beings have very few job possibilities and labour is on hand at a low cost.

For this he needs 4 specific heads for Sales, Accounts, Purchase and Production. He offers a commercial and shortlists some candidates after conducting determination tests.

1. Identify and nation the subsequent three steps for deciding on first-rate candidates.

2. Also discover two values which Nishant desires to communicate.

8) Training: Training is the act of growing the expertise and technical abilities of a worker for doing a unique job efficiently. Both current personnel and new personnel get acquainted with their jobs and this will increase job associated skills.

Training Methods:Training Method Off-the-job and On-the-Job Methods!


Management improvement is a systematic technique of boom and improvement via which the managers increase their skills to man­age.

It is worried with no longer solely enhancing the overall performance of managers however additionally giving them possibilities for increase and develop­ment.

There are two strategies thru which managers can enhance their information and skills.

One is thru formal coaching and different is thru on the job experiences.

On the job coaching is very essential due to the fact real mastering takes region solely when one practices what they have studied.

But it is additionally equally necessary in gaining understanding thru school room learning.

Learning will become fruitful solely when idea is blended with practice.

Therefore, on the job techniques can be balanced with school room education strategies (off-the-job methods).

1. On-the-job Training (OJT) Methods:

This is the most frequent technique of coaching in which a trainee is positioned on a precise job and taught the capabilities and understanding quintessential to function it.

The benefits of OJT are as follows:

A. On the job approach is a bendy method.

B. It is a much less high-priced method.

C. The trainee is relatively prompted and stimulated to learn.

D. Much association for the coaching is now not required.

On-the-job education techniques are as follows:

A. Job rotation: This coaching technique entails motion of trainee from one job to every other reap information and ride from extraordinary job assignments. This technique helps the trainee under­stand the troubles of different employees.

B. Coaching: Under this method, the trainee is positioned underneath a unique supervisor who features as a instruct in coaching and offers remarks to the trainee. Sometimes the trainee can also now not get a probability to categorical his ideas.

C. Job instructions: Also regarded as step-by-step education in which the coach explains the way of doing the jobs to the trainee and in case of mistakes, corrects the trainee.

D. Committee assignments: A team of trainees are requested to clear up a given organizational hassle with the aid of discussing the problem. This helps to enhance crew work.

E. Internship training: Under this method, directions via theoretical and realistic factors are supplied to the trainees. Usually, college students from the engineering and commerce schools obtain this kind of coaching for a small stipend.

2. Off-the-job Methods:

On the job education strategies have their personal limitations, and in order to have the basic improvement of employee’s off-the-job coaching can additionally be imparted.

The strategies of education which are adopted for the improvement of personnel away from the area of the job are acknowledged as off-the-job methods.

The following are some of the off-the-job techniques:

A. Case find out about method:

Usually case find out about offers with any trouble confronted via a commercial enterprise which can be solved through an employee.

The trainee is given a probability to analyze the case and come out with all feasible solutions.

This approach can decorate analytic and essential wondering of an employee.

B. Incident method: Incidents are organized on the foundation of proper conditions which occurred in special corporations and every worker in the education crew is requested to make choices as if it is a real-life situation.

Later on, the whole team discusses the incident and takes choices associated to the incident on the foundation of character and crew decisions.

C. Role play: In this case additionally a trouble state of affairs is simulated asking the worker to anticipate the function of a unique man or woman in the situation.

The participant interacts with different members assuming special roles. The total play will be recorded and trainee receives a possibility to look at their personal performance.

D. In-basket method: The personnel are given records about an imaginary company, its activi­ties and products, HR employed and all facts associated to the firm.

The trainee (employee underneath training) has to make notes, delegate duties and put together schedules inside a certain time. This can boost situational judgments and speedy selection making capabilities of employees.

E. Business games: According to this technique the trainees are divided into corporations and every crew has to talk about more than a few things to do and features of an imaginary organization.

They will talk about and figure out about a variety of topics like production, promotion, pricing etc. This offers end result in co-operative selection making process.

F. Grid training: It is a non-stop and phased programmed lasting for six years.

It consists of phases of planning development, implementation and evaluation.

The grid takes into consideration parameters like situation for humans and challenge for people.

G. Lectures: This will be an appropriate technique when the numbers of trainees are pretty large.

Lectures can be very a great deal useful in explaining the standards and concepts very clearly, and face to face interplay is very lots possible.

H. Simulation: Under this technique an imaginary state of affairs is created and trainees are requested to act on it.

For e.g., assuming the function of an advertising supervisor fixing the advertising and marketing troubles or growing a new approach etc.

I. Management education:

At current universities and administration institutes offers top notch emphasis on administration education.

For e.g., Mumbai University has begun bachelors and postgraduate diploma in Management.

Many administration Institutes grant no longer solely stages however additionally fingers on ride having collaboration with enterprise concerns.

J. Conferences: An assembly of quite a few human beings to talk about any problem is referred to as conference.

Each par­ticipant contributes through inspecting and discussing a variety of troubles associated to the topic. Everyone can specific their personal view point.

Short Questions

Q1- Mention quickly the essential sources of recruitment.

Ans– The two very essential sources of recruitment in any agency are.

Internal sources: Internal sources of recruitment are the sources that are inside the organisation

External Sources: External sources of recruitment are these sources of recruitment that exist backyard the business enterprise

Q2- Why Aptitude check is carried out in the course of the procedure of selection?

Ans– An aptitude check is carried out to measure and scale the applicant’s conceivable for studying a skill.

Q3- What is Training. In what way is it one-of-a-kind from education?

Ans– Training is to beautify the skills, abilities, and competence that is required for a precise job profile. While schooling skill the method which improves the ordinary understanding and appreciation of the employees.

Q4- Why ‘employment interview’ is performed through an enterprise in the technique of selection?

Ans– Organizations behavior worker interviews in order to determine the applicant’s feasibility for the function and to test if the individual is appropriate for the prescribed job post.

Q5- Give the cause why interior sources of recruitment are regarded to be extra economical?

Ans- Internal sources provide the benefit of being extra competitively priced than any different supply of recruitment. It is additionally more cost effective in phrases of saving time as nicely as money.

Q6- Mention the subsequent step of selection?

Ans- The subsequent step of decision is Placement and Orientation.

Q7- Mention the benefits of education to the person and to the organisation?

Ans- Training is a necessary phase of the job that goals at enhancing and developing the aptitude and information of a man or woman as prescribed in the job description.

It advantages the enterprise thru the expanded capabilities and output of the employee.

Q8- Explain how the contemporary day human aid administration is a broader concept.

Ans- In the current time human aid administration involves:

Assisting in accomplishing the dreams that are set by using the company alongside with conducting the private goals

Utilizing employees’ talent in an environment friendly manner

Enhancing job pride of the employees

Q9- Mention the process for the resolution of employees.

Ans- The resolution of the personnel entails the following procedures:

a. Screening

b. Test

c. Personal Interview

d. Background checks

e. Selection decision

f. Medical examination

g. Job offer

h. contract

Long Answer Type Questions

Q1. Define the staffing method and the more than a few steps concerned in it.

Ans- The staffing method of the administration is involved with acquiring, developing, employing, remunerating, and holding humans or we can say it is the well-timed fulfillment of the manpower necessities within an organization.

The following steps are worried in the staffing process

(i) Estimating the Manpower Requirements, the first step in the staffing system is figuring out the existing manpower stock and assessing the existing and future manpower necessities of the enterprise preserving in idea the manufacturing schedule, demand, etc.

(ii) Recruitment may additionally be described as the manner of looking for potential personnel and stimulating them to observe for jobs in the organization. For this, more than a few sources can be used like transfer, promotion, advertising, job consultants, etc.

(iii) Selection is the manner of deciding on from amongst the pool of potential job candidates developed at the stage of recruitment. It entails a host of checks and interviews.

(iv) Placement and Orientation is introducing the chosen worker to different personnel and familiarizing him with the policies and insurance policies of the organization. He is taken around the work region and given the cost of the job for which he has been selected. Placement refers to the worker occupying the role or publishes for which the individual has been selected.

(v) Training and Development All establishments have both in-house education centers or have cast alliances with coaching and instructional institutes to make certain persisted in getting to know their subordinates. By providing the possibilities for professional development to their members, corporations are now not solely in a position to appeal to however additionally keep their gifted staff.

(vi) Performance Appraisal After the personnel have passed through a length of education and they have been on the job for some time, there is a want to consider their performance. The worker is anticipated to be aware of what the requirements are and the gold standard is to grant the worker remarks on his/her performance. The overall performance appraisal process, therefore, will encompass defining the job, appraising overall performance and presenting feedback.

(vii) Promotion and Career Planning, it is very vital for all organizations to tackle profession associated troubles and promotional avenues for their employees. They have to grant possibilities to everybody to exhibit their achievable and in return promotions can be provided.

(viii) Compensation All organizations want to set up wage and revenue plans for their employees. There are a number methods to put together unique pay plans relying on the well worth of the job. Compensation therefore, refers to all varieties of pay or rewards going to employees.

Q2. Explain the process for the choice of employees.

Ans- The essential steps in the procedure of resolution are as follows

(i) Preliminary Screening It helps the manager put off unqualified or unfit job seekers primarily based on the facts provided in the utility forms.

(ii) Selection Tests An employment check is a mechanism that tries to measure positive traits of individuals. These vary from aptitudes, such as guide dexterity, to Genius to personality.

(iii) Employment Interview is a formal, in depth dialog carried out to consider the applicant’s suitability for the job.

(iv) Reference and Background Checks Many employers request names, addresses and phone numbers of references for the reason of verifying statistics and gaining extra on an applicant.

(v) Selection Decision The remaining selection has to be made amongst the candidates who omit the tests, interviews and reference checks.

(vi) Medical Examination Before the candidate is given a job provide he/she is required to go via a clinical test.

(vii) Job Offer Job provide is made via a letter of appointment/confirm his acceptance. Such a letter commonly carries a date by way of which the appointee ought to document on duty.

(viii) Contract of Employment After the job provide has been made and candidate accepts the offer, sure files want to be accomplished by using the business enterprise and the candidate. There is additionally a want for making ready a contract of employment. It consists of job title, duties, responsibilities, date when non-stop employment begins etc.

Q3. What are the blessings of coaching to the character and to the organization?

Ans- Training helps each the enterprise and the individual.

Benefits to the Organisation

(i) Training is a systematic studying which reduces the wastage of efforts and money.

(ii) Enhances worker productivity.

(iii) Training helps a supervisor to cope with an emergency situation.

(iv) Training motivates people and for this reason reduces absenteeism.

(v) Helps in adjusting to the altering surroundings (technological).

Benefits to the Employee

(i) Better profession possibilities due to multiplied abilities and knowledge.

(ii) Earnings can be improved due to elevated performance.

(iii)Trained employees can take care of machines extra efficiently.

(iv) Employees constantly stay influenced and satisfied.

Q4. The staffing characteristic is carried out with the aid of each supervisor and now not always by using a separate department. Explain.

Ans- Staffing is a characteristic which all managers want to perform.

It is the accountability of all managers to at once deal with and pick out humans to work for the organization.

When the supervisor performs the staffing characteristic his position is barely limited.

In small organizations, managers can also operate all obligations associated to personnel salaries, welfare and working prerequisites however as organization develop and range of humans employed increases, a separate branch called the human useful resource branch is shaped which has professionals in managing people.