Linux and Unix ls command tutorial with examples

ls command list all the file and directory name present in the current directory.
Syntax:

Example:
Print the name of all the directory and file available in the current directory.

Above command display four file and directory name.

Check availability of file or directory: We can check whether a particular file or directory is present in the current directory or not. To know we just specify a file name with ls command.

If Employee Record file is not available, the system will clearly say:

Details of file and directory (-l option): We can check the details of the file with (-l) option

First character ā€œ-ā€œ or ā€œdā€: The first character represents the type of file. The symbol “-“represents a regular file and “d” denotes a directory.
Next Nine Character: Next 9 character (for example rwxr-xr– )represent the file or directory permission permissions.
The first group of 3 characters(for example rwxr-xr–) represent permissions for owner means the owner has a permission to read, write and execute.
The second group of 3 characters(for example rwxr-xr–) represent permissions for members of the file group means the group has a permission only to read and execute.
The third group of 3 characters (for example rwxr-xr–) represent permissions for others means others have a permission only to read a file.

Second column: Represent the of the number of links to that file.
Third column: Represent the owner of the file.
Fourth Column: Represent the group of the file.
Fifth Column: Represent the size of the file. Here file size for the file 2.txt is 13 bytes.
Sixth Column: Represent the last modified date and time of the file or directory.
Seventh column: Tells the name of the file or directory in current directory.

Options of ls command

Sr NoOptionsDescription
1-aShow all the files start starting with '.' dot
2-FDenote executable file with *, directory with / and symbolic line with @
3-lRepresent the details of file/directory.
4-rShort list in reverse order
5-RRepresent the recursive list.
6-sRepresent the size of the file.
7-Ssort by size of file
8-tsort by date and time of the system.
9-Xsort by extension.