what is computer
Basically, a computer is a machine that is capable of getting data in a given form and having done a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of instructions to deliver a result in the form of information.
It has turned into a personification in our day-to-day proceedings. Whether elders, children or middle-aged people, everybody is relying on computers.
Computers were built with a purpose so that it can reduce the time of humans in executing tasks.
Computers were there and will be there before the end of our civilization.
Read More: Computer Generations
Full Form of Computer
A computer is not an acronym and is the name of an electronic device.
But people refer computer as :-
COMPUTER stands for:-
C -> Commonly
O -> Operated
M -> Machine
P -> Particularly
U -> Used for
T -> Trade
E -> Education
R -> and Research
Types of Computer
On the basis of data handling capabilities, the computer is of three types:
On the basis of size, the computer is of five types:
1. Mainframe computer
3. Miniframe or minicomputer
1. Mainframe computer
It is referred to as “large iron”. It is a device that is used for processing jobs of large information.
2. Super computer
A computer that is used with a high level of performance compared to a general purposes computer device is known as a supercomputer.
In China, there are more than 219 supercomputers”. The United States of America has 116 nos. of supercomputers.
Japan has more than 29 supercomputers. India has 11 supercomputers out of the upper five hundred supercomputers.
It is used in the department of the computing field.
Minicomputers are used for scientific and engineering computations and it is used for business.
a powerful, single-user computer that is having a superior quality monitor and hi-fi microprocessor.
A microcomputer is a microprocessor computer and its central processing unit.
Categories of the computer on basis of Computing
A computer has two primary categories:
Hardware: Physical structure that abodes a computer’s processor, memory, storage, transmission docks, and outermost devices.
Hardware is the real model that we can feel and tap on it.
Ex. RAM, Hard drive, and CD ROM
Software: Includes Database Management and Applications software
VLC Media player, Ms Word, Picasa, Windows, Android, iOS, Language processors. These all are Softwares.
Parts of computer
Computers are having four parts:
There are basically two types of mouse i.e. ball type and optical type. When we remove the bottom disk on ball-type mice, we see a cavity in which a hard spherical ball is placed and made easy to roll.
When the mouse is moved over a leveled surface, the ball rolls in the x and y-axis and accordingly rotates two pivots either clockwise or counterclockwise.
Rotation of these two pivots is replicated as the movement of the cursor on our screen based on ac/dc convertors and decoders.
While in newer optical mice, the led or laser light is made to glow over the surface over which it is placed on a certain angle of incidence.
This causes a reflex pattern to form which is seized by the sensing medium.
When the mouse is moved over the surface, the pattern of shadow moves in different directions according to the focus of the mouse.
This variation and longevity are replicated as movement regarding mouse, pointer.
Since it requires the formation of shadow patterns, such an optical mouse works on the surface with some amount of roughness.
Highly plain tables and notepaper never work well with optical mice as the shadow pattern never forms due to the scattering of light.
2. CPU(Central Processing Unit).
CPU is the “brain” of a computer. The central processing unit provides data to be managed and handled sent by the user.
Most of the time the user scrolls towards the key, the application is being carried out, or glance at the webpage, the specific code is made to study and comes again as reflux to the enjoyer.
The CPU works closely with the memory. Memory is a component that sends featured data to the device.
A monitor is a bit of PC equipment that shows the video and illustrations data created by an associated PC through the PC’s video card.
A monitor which was previously and now implied to as a screen, the video showing the device, or watching movies or for playing online games.
Since there are so various kinds of monitors and approaches to utilize them, lots of assembled articles can assist one with catching through everything.
A Monitor is divided into five segments: Monitor Basics, Add or Connect a Monitor, Calibrate it yourself, Troubleshooting Issues, etc.
Monitors are implicit as a feature of the PC in workstations, tablets, books, and across the board work area machines
Different components of the Keyboard are
1- Alpha Numerical Key
2- Function Key
3 – Navigation Key
4- Control key
5- Numerical Key
1. Alpha Numerical Key
These keys are visible on the left-hand side of the keyboard it includes from A to Z alphabets and numbers from 0 to 9 and some special symbol, we can use the alphabets is capital by Dynamic capslocks key.
2. Function Key
The function keys are present at the top row of the keyboard we can find twelve functions of this key is various requisition to another.
3. Navigation Keys
This key is also which is visible in the middle portion of the keyboard, it helps to place the slider from one place to another place easily.
4. Control Keys
This key is used for controlling operations relating to tasks to be fulfilled on the computer. Some examples are ctrl, shift, etc.
5. Numerical Keys
This key is present on the right side of the keyboard and it helps the user to perform different types of mathematical calculations easily.
Today’s computers are smaller and amazingly powerful when compared with earlier computers.
They are having different variations that can be put on a table, in the knees, and in the hands.
History of Computer
The first known computer using that definition is the Antikythera mechanism which is dated to before 100BC and was built in Greece.
Its exact purpose is unknown but recently it has been asserted that it’s an accurate portrayal of the position of the planets & celestial bodies.
With the publication of Newton’s “Principal Mathematica” computation of orbits became possible.
The hand computations which led to the prediction of the comet of 1758, validated Newton’s math and physics.
The return of comet is an n-body problem. Only planets from Mercury through Saturn were known.
There was no analytical solution for more than two bodies. Many people took help of computers to make the computations.
Halley’s Comet made a comeback in 1835 as a result of these computations.
Computation is different from the actual return date. This implied there were planets beyond Saturn!
With Napierian logarithms, the “Slide Rule” came into existence.
Every scientist and engineer had their own slide rule and then Hewlett Packard’s pocket calculator was discovered.
But in 1952 the Universal Automatic Computer which was designed for business application predicted the elections of President.
A prediction no one believed until later that the computer outguessed the experts made newspaper headlines.
The first programmable computer was designed by Charles Babbage in the 1830s, was mechanical rather than electronic.
Sadly it could never be constructed, and it wasn’t until World War II that British code breakers built Colossus, the world’s first computerized and fully automated computer.
Alan Turing was such a fantastic mathematician who being fascinated in breaking up of codes managed to construct a computer after the world war.
From science projects to everyday tool
Scientists and Physicists were curious towards computers every other time. Interaction between humans and computers continued from the period of mouse to present age.
Douglas Engelbart invented mouse in 1960s.
Apple Macintosh computers were released in 1984 and it then became useful and more importantly in the capacity of ordinary man to carry out various tasks.
Highlights in the development of the computer
Computers made out as bigger frameworks of glass plugs and wires that occupied multiple rooms and weighed tons.
Now they can get set on semiconductor chips that is barely larger than an ant and are millions of times more powerful than the first ones.
The number of computers has increased a lot over time.
Urban myth has it that, in the 1950s, the head of IBM projected an international shop for lots of projected computers.
ARPANET was developed by the United States of America that allowed a few universities and the army for the computers in the US to talk to each other which helped in the foundation for the modern internet, the worldwide network that connects to a lot of computers – and people – to each other.
How computers work
When you first turn your computer on, the only thing it’s capable of doing is finding the BIOS (Basic Input Output System) ROM (Read Only Memory) chip on your mainboard.
A program is plugged onto the BIOS chip so that it knows where to seek for, and how to access the different drives.
The computer begins the start-up process. It loads coded programs and instructions executed on the BIOS chip into memory and carries out the instructions in order.
To view any actions being carried out on the monitor; the Pause key is pressed. The POST operation will be halted until you press the Escape key again.
Viruses and how to protect computer from it
This was with WINDOWS Operating Systems.
After going through a long process of learning how to combat this virus attack.
Many people did not know about making a backup program yet and using the restore back to an earlier time only worked now and then.
Until someone found the backup programs to make a system disk back up, one started to reinstall my Windows operating system.
It got operated into a new operating system again. Someone began to keep my data on an external drive so when the next viral attack happens; someone only had to reinstall the Operating system.
Someone looked on the internet to try to find a Windows Live disk that would boot on the DVD/CD drive, don’t bother looking &Windows never allowed it to be created.
However, someone did find a program called BART, which used XP as part of the program to boot from the DVD/CD drive and allow you to access the hard drive in the computer avoiding starting the normal operating system. It’s a good program.
Someone found the system backup program on BART and that was such a time saver.
The backup would back up the entire system disk. When you restored it, it formatted the drive and restored the system as it was at the time I backed it up. PERFECT!!!
Later someone tried LINUX and liked it.
I installed it on my computer as DUAL BOOT, and only use the LINUX for internet, the Windows-based operating system have their updates turned off. They never went to the internet in windows.
Further, the Windows operating System has Deep Freeze installed which prevents changes to the Windows operating system unless you want to make a change.
Now speaking from years of no virus attacks and still using games and programs that the newer Windows Operating Systemswon’t run.
There is another webpage that talks about why Linux is not nearly as vulnerable as Windows is to virus attacks
One strongly recommends that you make a SYSTEM DISK IMAGE BACKUP and put it in a safe place. Also, make a backup disk of your data files.
With a Windows Operating System, we must have to get an Antivirus program. Someone has no suggestion which one, they all have their flaws and if the virus is not on the menu, the program can’t find it, leaving you again, on your own.
Running Deep Freeze is not a fantastic implementation rather we have to work with it as it can’t discrepancy in the disk unless you give them a chance.
One can set a procedure to restore one’s system back up some week or just when one notices a problem with the operating system but make sure the restore will be of the date you made the backup.
If you have not updated it, one’s restore will be completely the same of that backup (of any previous time). Neither any fresh writing-off data will be there.
One also recommends saving data to an external drive leaving the operating system on the working drive, and use the open space as a temporary save then transfer the data to the external drive before shutting down the computer.
This is in regard if we have placed DEEP FREEZE because when you make the computer back in position and it starts up, any saves will be gone from the computer working drive.
Henceforth one should look into one’s backups and consider making a System Disk IMAGE Backup.
Study in Educational Institution
Students are taught computers from their schools.
In Colleges in Engineering Stream, there is a 4-year course and even research is there in the field of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Data Science.
Students are taught Python, C, C++, and Java in their regular curriculum. Computer study is based on mostly Practical studies.
Students are first taught theory then the practical assignment is done on computers, Laptops, etc.
Students should learn the basics of programming which can be easier if they have the logic to crack.
Various IT firms come to the college for campus placements in the last year of college students.
They ask students to write the program on a piece of paper and also ask aptitude questions.
The human resource department comes along with these IT firms and checks the educational certificates of every student who sit in the campus and accordingly clarifies being fit to join the company and rejects if any discrepancy happens.
If they are placed in that campus after being selected they are asked to join after completion of college along with final results.
Upon joining they are paid handsome packages accordingly they are promoted to senior positions.
1. Quickness: It is very quick in processing out the tasks. With its quick pace, it can lessen the doing of work
2. Perfection: It also gives 100% perfectness. It allows recipients to handle complicated operations with perfectness as well as readiness.
3. Multiple tasking: It can do a lot of tasks at a corresponding time. It allows playing movies, usage of internet, inspects emails periodically, and gets access to files on different drives of the computer.
4. Depository: It can deposit plenty of information. Data are stored for lots of years. Computers can deposit electronic books, movies, and photos. Anything can be detected using the search option.
5. Decrease in cost: It is a feasible medium to generate money in various ways. Computer when connected to the Internet, can help in running a blog, freelancing. It is fewer burdens on consumers in setting up a business virtually in case of any problem in outgoing tasks.
1. Unemployment: It is reducing a lot of jobs. Automation is happening in every sector which hardly needs humans for their daily workload.
2. Virus Attacks: Privacy is hampered to some extent. It may get access to your data in the form of personal address, banking transactions, personal Pics and videos
3. Adverse Effect on Environment: Computers generate a lot of electronic wastes in the form of batteries and other computer accessories which need safe disposal.
4. Inappropriate content: Lots of porn sites can be accessed when the computer is connected to the Internet. People spent a lot of time engaging in it and they may face mental issues in the long run.
5. Cyber Activities: People are facing cyber issues relating to computers in the form of extortion charges, the release of obscene videos.
6. Nil Social Interaction: People are just engrossed in the virtual world of computers. They are not going outside and they are cut off from society.
7. Health: When people spent a lot of time in computers they may face health issues like backache, eye irritations, diabetes, high blood pressure.
8. Unemployment: It is reducing a lot of jobs of people as automation in computers is happening.
8. Hacking: This is happening in today’s world where put a malicious code in the computer after customer clicks on this malicious code customer’s data are compromised and the message is coming to consumers in demanding money so that they will not leak information publically.
Applications of Computers
Training Programs: Computers are used to provide training to students in the form of a PGDCA program where they are taught Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, and Microsoft Word.
Banks: Customer data is stored in computers so that officials can get hold of daily transactions and keep track of it.
Health: The patient’s health history in the form of a record is stored so that it will be helpful in future complications. Also, it is used in X-Ray, and diagnosis of different body parts.
Entertainment: Children can play different games and watch educational videos recording their concerned subjects.
Business: For business transactions relating to supply or delivery Ledger is maintained in a computer to get a track of what is available and what is needed.
Government Office: Data of consumers are kept in the record so that beneficiaries of different schemes can avail of free food supply and housing facilities.
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Read in Detail Applications of Computer
With changing times, Computers have undergone a lot of changes in its features, design, storage, data handling.
People are addicted with computers in such a way they are avoiding social interaction.
Latest computers are in the minds of different software and hardware companies to read the human mind.
Computers are now being lot compact in size thereby it becomes easier to handle.
Big Companies are thinking to have budget-friendly computers which can be affordable to the general public.
Mainly people are too curious about what will be the future of computers in terms of technological aspects.
Computer stands for?
What does the computer stand for
There is no acronym for computer. It is an electronic device used to process data generally known as the data processor.
Many people refer computer as
Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Trade Education and Research
Write the full form of computer
The answer is as above
What is the meaning of computer
The term computer is taken from the Greek word compute it means to calculate
Computer is name given to an electronic device initially it was developed for calculation but nowadays it is working in all field.